Applications of MIRACLE: Working With Dynamic Visual Information
(JOANNEUM RESEARCH, Austria
Daniela G. Camhy
(Graz University, Austria
Jennifer A. Lennon
(Auckland University,New Zealand
(Graz University of Technology, Austria
JOANNEUM RESEARCH, Austria
Abstract: Systems supporting new forms of communication and archiving
of dynamic visual information have a range of potential applications, some
of which are described in this paper on a conceptual basis. We present
a visual language for dynamic (historic) maps, applications of pictorial
lexicons, concepts for interactive support systems for assembly and repair,
and a platform for abstract movies.
Keywords: visual languages, visual communication, interactive
maps, computer-supported communication, information archiving, information
retrieval, multimedia, dynamic maps, abstract movies
Categories: A.1, H.3.7, H.4.3, H.5.1, J.4, J.5
In [MSC03] we gave an extensive survey of various
issues of visual communication with a particular focus on efforts to develop
computer-based platforms supporting dynamic visual languages for human-to-human
communication. As one major conclusion we found that in the past dynamics
have not been investigated comprehensively on a structural level. Also,
"natural animation" as a means of representing dynamical processes
has not been exploited fully enough in the context of computer-supported
knowledge transmission and archiving. In this paper we show how the availability
of computer-based tools supporting visual communication could greatly improve
information sharing and archiving in a number of specific applications.
2 Dynamic Maps
2.1 The visual language of maps
Maps are a powerful tool to organize, store, and communicate concepts
in a visual manner. Indeed, for many types of information it is obvious
to be represented in the form of maps, in particular if they are based
on spatial data such as geographic information (see [Ovi96],
[AA99], [BS01], [Pet95]).
Therefore it is clear that geographic information from traditional cartography
to computer-supported Geographic Information Systems (GIS) heavily rely
on map based representation.
Other kinds of maps, however, have become increasingly popular recently
as powerful tools to organize and share thoughts and concepts. Mind Maps(®)
as conceived by Tony Buzan ([BB96], figure 1 shows
an example) is one of the most popular examples, but a range of other kinds
of "concept maps" have been developed. In today's computer based
environment, the creation, sharing and storage of such information is usually
supported by appropriate software. In human-computer interaction, information
visualization also relies on sophisticated visual metaphors including "information
Figure 1: Example of a Mind Map(®), created with computer
Most times, information is displayed in a networked and hierarchical
way, like in the "Knowledge Net" of an electronic encyclopaedia
shown in figure 2 which automatically groups together the most relevant
articles around a current entry positioned in the center.
Figure 2: Example of "Knowledge Net" in an electronic
Brockhaus encyclopaedia [Bro02]
Although interfaces to such systems may allow dynamic interaction with
the information represented (such as expanding/collapsing information structures,
flying through 3D information landscapes, rotating information networks
etc.) as long as the information itself is static, so naturally is its
depiction. But if a temporal aspect is included, a further dimension has
to be coped with. Visual representation of spatio-temporal information
poses new challenges and historic maps are an example of such applications.
One of the main issues in such systems is the question how to represent
the time factor. There are basically two ways: one can store entire "map
slices" as discreet snapshots for each moment that contains information
differing from any other slice. The other way is to store only the changes
(and, of course, an initial state). In the case of historic maps, the first
approach would result in a number of full maps, whereas the second one
would for instance only store the polygons of the changed country boundaries
(including erasure of old ones), unfolding to the full historic development
over time. Technically, the first approach could be covered by bitmaps
whereas the second one would be better treated by vector graphics.
As a static historic map taken out of a paper-based book, figure 3 shows
the system of alliances in Europe shortly before World War I ([dtv91]).
Overlaid over the actual geographic map is a symbolic representation of
the alliances, in the form of circles and half-circles in varying colors
and styles. There are also some specific symbols (such as flames denoting
conflicts) and arrows (denoting political influence and/or territorial
The image expressively demonstrates the power of visual representation
of complex situations. Intuitive to a high degree, the reader just has
to read a brief legend and be familiar with a small number of abbreviations
to understand the picture.
Figure 3: Sample of a historic map (adapted from [dtv91])
It seams feasible to describe historic events on an abstract level with
such visual representations in mind. Historians should work together with
computer scientists to specify a language as a basis for such descriptions
and to develop corresponding software systems that would allow to author
dynamic representations of historic developments in a comfortable way.
Such a language could serve as a powerful medium for communication about
history and for storing corresponding educational material. MIRACLE could
help greatly in these aspects.
Let us go into more detail concerning a visual language for the description
of historic events and political situations. Historic atlases use a range
of visual means to depict various aspects of territorial developments and
political circumstances (change of boundaries, strategic alliances etc).
A number of waves of computer-assisted instruction since the 1960s have
brought a range of computer-based variants of historic maps, with or without
interactive and dynamic features. The problem with such systems always
was the high costs of producing the content. The boundary of every country
had to be draw manually and the areas shaded properly, the same with dynamic
effects and animations to show political developments. A specification
system would help greatly in that respect.
Therefore we propose a system for dynamic history visualization called
Dynavish (DYNamic Abstract VISualisation of History) which provides the
framework to specify a language for the visual description of historical
processes, involving either concrete representations of territory (in form
of countries shown on maps) or abstract representations of political entities
(countries, alliances, pacts etc.). The basis of the system would be a
database storing the following objects, potentially with varying values
following the temporal axis:
- Places (mainly cities): Name and geographic coordinates;
- Persons: Name, dates of birth and death, country; role(s) (out of a
large predefined table);
- Countries/territories: name and form of government (out of a predefined
set of possible values) per period of time; geographic coordinates for
specific moments (or periods) of time; data would preferably be available
in numeric form (coordinates), as opposed to plain graphical form (such
as scanned drawings); capital (a reference to a place); includes/is-included
relation to other entries of the type country (to allow provinces to be
related to states etc.);
Based on these data, ideally the system would be able to draw maps of
desired areas for any specified period of time, automatically shaded in
an appropriate and appealing way. The user would be able to customize the
visualisation, for instance to give countries with the same (or similar)
systems of government the same color.
2.1.1 Dynamic historic visualisation
So far the system described would be nothing more than a comfortable
computer-based historic atlas. Only with the introduction of dynamic features
Dynavish unfolds its full innovative power. To this aim Dynavish features
a script language called Hiscript. It is stored as a plain text script
that can be edited directly in any plain text editor, but Dynavish will
also provide a WYSIWYG ("what you see is what you get") editor
for the comfortable creation and maintenance of Hiscripts.
A Hiscript describes a historic process referring to the data stored
in the system described in the previous section. These data are connected
by a human author who structures and sequences them with the knowledge
of a historian. Dynavish offers two dedicated modules to allow the definition
- relations between objects stored in the database in a specific
moment of time, and
- processes involving both objects and relations.
The description of relations (and their development) between entities
of human organization is very important for understanding history. Such
relations can have a range of types such as political, religious, cultural
etc. Dynavish provides a module to define such relations in a comfortable
way. The author selects (groups of) countries (or, on a more general and
abstract level, political entities) and chooses a type of relation, plus
the way the system will depict it (straight lines or (half) circles, type
of lines, color etc.).
If more than one relation is defined for an entity at a time, the system
proposes an appropriate way to simultaneously show them all. The system
automatically takes care of a proper visualisation of the relations based
on these specifications.
Processes are defined on a higher level, referring to both objects and
relations. To define a historical process the user would have to define
start and end points by selecting static maps or relations from the database
for the corresponding moments of time. In doing so, the temporal framework
of the process would be specified. Then the author would have to decide
which intermediate states should be integrated in the process (given there
are items between the start end points available in the database) by way
of interpolation done by the system (fading away objects no longer active,
and fading in newly appearing ones; smoothly showing expansion and shrinking
of countries etc). Figure 4 shows a sequence of 6 maps
(again from a printed source) that Dynavish ideally should be able to integrate
to one dynamically floating presentation.
In Hiscripts, the display of arbitrary multimedia elements (tables,
charts, written text, audio, video, animations etc.) can be synchronized
with the animation of the processes generated by the system itself (defined
by the script) to deepen the user's understanding with illustrations and
further written or spoken explanations.
Figure 4: A sequence of historical maps [dtv91]
Alliances are represented as lines connecting countries. Depending on
the geographic situation the system depicts this in the form of a circle,
an arc, or a straight line going through the centres of the countries,
with the colour automatically selected if not defined by the author (colour
can have "political significance" as we know).
To enhance consistence, various aspects (countries and political, economic
or religious information) can be represented by colour or shading effects
over a period of time. "Playing back" a sequence of historical
events in a specific geographic area would result in a sort of a highly
abstract movie which would quite intuitively show the developments. The
images could be accompanied be acoustic information, most probably spoken
text explaining further details of the shown developments. The user would
be able to stop the playback at any time to investigate aspects directly
by clicking on visual items. The system would then present details for
the item as stored on the database for the specific time. Note that both
spoken as well as written information can and should of course be made
available on a multi-lingual basis.
2.1.2 Visualizing social and organizational relations and processes
As a side effect the Hiscript module could - with a few modifications
- also be used for visualizing relationships between humans on a smaller
scale, say in the framework of a company, community or even a family. In
that way a window for numerous further applications would be opened.
Visual information can significantly increase the learning rate in many
situations, and quite often proper instruction would actually be unfeasible
without images. In traditional instruction, illustrations in printed books
have fulfilled that task. Today, with the wide availability of electronic
media, multimedia elements are commonplace in modern instructional settings,
allowing for much more intuitive and direct learning experiences with the
help of dynamic and interactive components. Basing such systems on visual
components to an even stronger degree by using a visual language as proposed
in MIRACLE could further enhance the value and efficiency of instructional
The high costs of producing high-quality instructional material have
always been a major problem in eLearning efforts. In particular, a visual
communication platform such as MIRACLE needs to be based on a large image
collection serving as a visual dictionary. Indeed pictorial dictionaries
such as the ones produced by Oxford-Duden [OD95] offer
a reference between an image and its proper verbal correspondence. They
can be used to find the proper words for rarely named objects (such as
specific types of sails, for instance) and - if they are multilingual -
to find simple one-to-one translations of words with their images acting
as a universally understood "mediator". Of course this only works
in the realm of the physical world because abstract concepts, feelings
etc. cannot easily be depicted visually (at least not on a generally agreed
Pictorial dictionaries can be used to support the production of courseware
in a semi-automatic way. For instance, in an instructional unit on large
sailing ships, figure 5 could be used as a starting point to explain all
the different types of sails, one by one.
The basic words and their references to the graphics (via the index
numbers) are already available. These just need to be expanded with detailed
explanations that can come in any type of multimedia. Sequenced appropriately,
the result would be a simple instructional unit.
Figure 5: Sample from pictorial dictionary showing physical
The scenes shown in figure 6 are of a different
quality. Here, the objects are basically the same in all five panels: a
swimmer (whether male or female is an irrelevant detail). What makes the
difference here is what they are doing, i.e. the type of swimming. Of course
in this case it would be much more natural to show the movements directly,
in the form of animations or video clips, thus it would be much better
handled on a computer-based platform than on paper.
Figure 6: Pictorial dictionary naming different types of
Figure 7 shows yet another "visual setting". Here, die overall
situation (a hotel bar) to a large degree defines the meaning of the individual
visual items and thus we learn that the proper term for the man behind
the bar (label no. 62).
The precise name of an object depends on its context and images can
be useful to provide such backgrounds. The relations between textual and
pictorial information about the items (represented on paper by the numbered
labels) can be exploited by computer systems in a number if ways.
Figure 7: Pictorial dictionary showing objects in complex
In a computer-supported environment for visual communication as outlined
in the first MIRACLE paper [MSC03] users could make
references to specific items in pictorial dictionaries in case they need
to refer to unusual terms or very specific objects. In that way, translation
between languages is made available as a side-effect, assuming the pictorial
dictionary has a multi-lingual text basis. Thus in MIRACLE a seamless switch
between instruction, communication, and knowledge retrieval would be possible
in a visual environment.
3.2 Instructing Pre-literate Children
We now focus on children, who can already talk fluently and are capable
of handling simple computer games or such, but cannot fully read and write
yet. In Middle Europe this group would typically comprise the children
aged 4-7, i.e. almost 10% of the total population! In addition to the obvious
and most essential "learning by doing" way, children in this
age group usually learn by watching and listening to adults and (in the
so-called "developed world") by watching television.
There are many situations when other alternatives like a subset of MIRACLE
mixed with multimedia clips would be very convenient. Let us examine the
particular instance of games. There are many games (card games, board games,
...) that are available for children of the mentioned age group and which
are well-liked by the children, yet the explanation of the rules of the
games comes as printed booklet, i.e. requires an adult 'interpreter'. It
should be clear that packaging the games with a multimedia CD that shows
how the game is played using examples in connection with obvious symbols
(like wagging a finger for "this is a no-no" or a thumbs up for
"this is very good") would make lots of sense.
A combination with a WWW server may still be more powerful, since by
dropping 'question icons' at some places not only more explanation can
be given (as would also be possible with CDs) but the game manufacturer
obtains valuable fee-back on where children have difficulties to understand
the game. That such a networked environment can also be used to form a
community of players, possibly communicating using MIRACLE is another aspect
that has received little attention so far although computer game industry
has introduced online games and associated player communities long ago.
MIRACLE could support children not only in learning how to play games
but also in learning important things for the "serious life"
(like tying shoe-laces) or how to assemble objects correctly out of complex
construction kits. These issues are going to be addressed in a forthcoming
paper: A Child's CanDo Assistant; Lennon, J. Maurer, H., JUCS vol.9, no.9
(September 2003), to appear.
3.3 First Aid
First aid requires precise and quick action. Therefore any first aid
instruction has to be confined to the simplest and briefest possible text
and clear illustrations. Figure 8 shows a page of a book ([Gre92])
on first aid for children which fulfils that requirement.
Because emergencies cannot be predicted, a computer-based first aid
support must be available "anytime" and "anywhere",
based on some sort of mobile device. PDAs or UMTS mobile phones could be
appropriate platforms for such systems. Simple graphic and textual instructions
could be made available from a dedicated server. In addition to the general
information coming from the server, a human expert could provide precise
and individual instructions on the basis of spoken information given by
the rescuer and of images captured with a built-in camera. The instructions
provided by the person "behind" the server could again be individual
spoken instructions or playing back pre-produced sequences of animation
The application of first aid as described here is actually similar to
the one described in the following section and it is clear that it would
likewise heavily benefit from the more advanced mobile devices described
Figure 8: Sample of visual first aid instructions [Gre92]
3.4 Electronic Support for Assembly and Repair
Current developments in Augmented Reality and Wearable Computers (of
the many resources see for instance [Ge00], [DV01],
[Fei02], [MO03]) indicate that
in the future computers will be able to provide proper support in situations
requiring specific assistance by giving feedback to an actual and individual
setting and context.
Among the applications most appropriate for and demanding such assistance
are all situations involving some very specific physical arrangement of
items, such as repair and assembly.
On early generation systems users would give input to the system by
manoeuvring through a hierarchical menu structure or through direct search
functions. More advanced future systems would allow visual input through
a built-in camera. Image analysis techniques would allow to automatically
recognize certain circumstances shown in the image, such as broken items
or configurations that need specific maintenance. The system would generate
visual output on mobile devices (such as PDAs or various sorts of head-mounted
displays). The presented content could be a combination of video, animation,
and "visual statements" composed of components of a visual language
as proposed in MIRACLE.
Although currently it seems to be a long road in that direction
the, ultimate "mobile assistance system" (see also the
eAssistent outlined in [MO03]) would be as easy to
be used as pointing a small device (including a camera) towards some
item or "scene" that requires some action and watching what
assistance the systems would offer by visual explanation. The
assistance would not be generic but would be centred around specific
support for an individual situation, intuitive and easy to
Note that there are a number of very specific variants of such general
applications, such as first aid (see previous section) and telemedicine,
instruction for children on games (see above) or the assembly of construction
kits, and various forms of repair and maintenance tasks, be it in private
or professional settings (automobiles, bikes, machinery etc.). Furniture
manufacturers and retailers could bundle their products with corresponding
electronic assembly assistance.
3.5 Mobile Communication: Directory, Routing and Ordering Services
The fast development of mobile communication will open another
field of applications for visual communication in the near future on
the basis of widely available technology. Possible applications range
from hotel and travel booking to information systems offering train or
flight schedules, ticket ordering and many others. Many of these
fields will see simple realizations soon, based on UMTS
technology. However, the development of sophisticated visual
communication tools for small mobile devices (including computer
driven control centres found in automobiles) will remain a challenge
for some time. In particular, new forms of visual metaphors will be
required to fully exploit their limited displays and it can be assumed
that dynamic elements will play an essential role in that
4 Communicating in Groups With Special Needs
Computer-supported visual communication platforms could significantly
improve sharing information within certain groups that have special needs,
as well as between members of such groups and the "rest of the world".
We give a few examples.
4.1 Aiding Hearing Impairments
The natural language of the deaf is sign language. With specific
grammars and large vocabularies, sign languages are about as difficult
to learn as spoken languages and they come in many local variants
quite similar to spoken languages. Therefore deaf people from
different regions can only communicate using a specific sign language
of some international significance in the sense of a foreign
language. Today, American Sign Language (ASL) serves a similar global
purpose as second language for the deaf as does English for the
hearing. Due to its strong relation to spoken language, written text
is not an appropriate means of communication for people born deaf. In
this regard MIRACLE can play a big role for the community of deaf
people, serving as a cross-cultural platform, both among deaf
communities using different sign languages as well as between the deaf
and hearing people.
Computer-supported systems doing real-time translation between sign
language and spoken language (in both directions) are being developed,
but a system like MIRACLE would offer a key advantage to such systems:
being of a more general kind, it would be useful also to the average
Thus, MIRACLE could be of tremendous help for deaf people, particularly
if every attempt is made to take into account in the design of MIRACLE
typical elements of sign languages: this is one of the many reasons why
the development of MIRACLE will closely look at all aspects of gesture
languages (for more details in this aspect see [MSC03].
4.2 Against Illiteracy
There are a number of substantial groups of persons that are not capable
of writing and reading well. Reasons for this can be
- Age: children under a certain age just cannot read and write; this
group is covered in more detail above.
- Dyslexia: Various forms of mental deficiency, be it by birth or caused
by an accident can seriously limit the ability to read and write.
- Deafness: As mentioned above, people born deaf have substantial difficulty
to handle written text because of its strong relationship to spoken language.
- Environment: A large proportion of persons in third world countries
cannot read and write because they have no opportunity to learn this skill.
For persons in all these groups, using symbols for generating or using
information would offer a significant relief or assistance, and even a
small subset of MIRACLE could prove very helpful. Both communication within
the mentioned groups and between those groups and the average majority
of population would strongly benefit from such a system. It has to be noted
however that in case (d), one of the basic assumptions that computers are
universally available to all may not be realistic in the near future. Hence,
static versions of MIRACLE (i.e. printed visual languages that might show
some similarity to Blissymbolics, see [Bli84]) may
be more likely to become popular on a short-term perspective.
5 Abstract Movies
In the context of movies, as with textual documents, the word "abstract"
has a whole spectrum of meanings. It can mean obtuse, complex, indefinite,
subtle, abbreviated, etc.
In the context of hypermedia systems a single movie may also have any,
or all, of these representations associated with it. In the first MIRACLE
paper [MSC03] and the first MUSLI paper [ML94] we
have described how elements of a movie, both static and dynamic, may have
multiple representations. These alternatives may be stored as linked resource
files. By invoking a "preferences" option, users may define how
they wish the alternatives to be presented. For example, we showed how
a movie might provide the following views:
- Symbolic - condensed: abbreviated forms
- Symbolic - expanded: any of a multiple range of more explicit forms,
- Pictorial and/or graphical
- Written textual details
- Digitised sound/speech
We have produced prototypes that let users play and replay movies displaying
any of the above forms - or a selection of them simultaneously. This level
of choice makes it possible to tailor MUSLI documents to suit users'
individual differences, preferences, and learning/ reading styles.
The interplay between authors and reader's views of any document is
a particularly interesting, albeit complex, one. For example, no matter
how precise an author may try to make a document, readers' backgrounds
will almost inevitably colour their interpretations. Many people (particularly
teachers and dictators!) have viewed this as a weakness to be overcome
at all cost. However, we believe that this very weakness can, and should,
be turned into a strength. This is particularly true with movies. How many
times have you enjoyed reading a book only to be disappointed with the
movie that was based on it? The problem is frequently that the movie contradicts
assumptions that we formed while reading. Often it is not abstract enough
to comply with visualizations formed by our imaginations (conscious or
5.2 User-directed Representations
Ideally, the movie should be presented to us in a form that we feel
most comfortable with at the time we view it. This assumes that as we learn
from the experience we may then want a different version of the movie at
the next viewing. In other words, users should be able to control the presentation
to reflect their particular requirements at any one point in time.
Figure 9: Predefined Filters in the Snow White MUSLI Movie [Ho00]
We prototyped a version of Snow White that demonstrated how this
could be achieved - at least on a few levels [Ho00].
We chose to look at levels of abstraction. As can be seen in figure 9 users
can run and re-run the movie with various filters selected from a predefined
Figures 10 (a, b, c) show the same scene but with (a) iconic representations
of Snow White and the dwarves, (b) a Disney representation, and (c) an
abstract (symbolic) filter.
Figure 10 (a, b, c): Three Representations of the Same Scene
In addition to this, all the major characters in the movie had multiple
representations as illustrated in the scrollable list in figure 11.
Figure 11: Alternative Representations of Snow White [Ho00]
What we felt was most impressive was the interest that all our user
testers have expressed in the transition from icons to abstract symbols.
This was particularly true for the sections of the movie with high emotional
content such as fear, see figure 12.
Figure 12 (a, b, c): Three Different Levels of Abstraction
When the whole movie was viewed with representations such as those captured
in figure 12 (b) or (c) the interplay of emotions was emphasised in dramatic
Levels of abstraction are especially important in learning environments,
enabling different learning styles to be supported more easily. This also
gives teachers the chance to adjust the initial level of abstraction, or
concreteness, to better suit individuals.
An additional point that we feel is of importance is that it also helps
users to retain their power of imagination - thereby unifying the advantages
of word and picture.
Yet another way of viewing abstract movies that may suit youngsters
in this multi-stream world is, as shown in figure 13, to present alternative
views simultaneously. Since documents might contain deliberate ambiguous
meanings these could be a fascinating way of comprehending the author's
Figure 13: Simultaneous playing of different views of the
same MUSLI document [Len95]
5.3 Artistic Representations of Movie Clips
To the above list we now want to add artistic variants of real-life
video clips. Consider the following illustrative example:
A scene from the novel The Mindcaller is filmed where the
actress playing the part of Aroha finds an obsidian carving and sees a
"flash" of her Nan's face. The film is then digitised into
separate layers: background, actor(s), and soundtrack. The background
(landscape) could then be transformed, into, say, an impressionistic
style. The actor could be rendered in surrealistic form.
Nan's face could be transformed into a post-modern art form that
focuses on enlargement and fracturing of various facial parts. The
transformed movie could then show those facial reformations, as
emotions are displayed, in a very unique way.
- Art style or art movement
Classical - neo classical - contemporary classical
Surrealism - pop surrealism
Sublime - neo sublime - horror sublime - sticky sublime
Realism - neo realism - neurotic realism
Modernism - fauvism - abstraction - minimalism - conceptual art
- feminist art - expressionism
Post Moderism - retro feminism - post minimalism - postmodern sublime
- Genres within each movement
- Current genres that could be researched include:
- quotidian, graffiti, banal, process art, etc.
- Artists with distinctive styles include: Leonore Fini, Dora
Carrington, Frida Kahlo (for Surrealism) and Matisse, Kirchner, Gunter
(for Modernism - Expressionism).
Incorporating features such as this, the MIRACLE prototype system will
- The exploration of transformation rules for the conversion of video
clips (of drama actions) into alternative artistic genres.
- The semi-automatic production of personalized, multi-layered painterly
video clips using generic transformation rules expressed in the works of
impressionistic painters such as Francis Marno (modern) - or Monet, van
Gogh, etc. (historical).
- The use of a range of pull-down menu options. For example, options
for the Medium (oils, acrylic, watercolour, gouache), Palette (colours,
colour mixes), and Equipment (brushes, rags, paint rubbers, sponges, scrapers)
may be used.
Hence, with MIRACLE, users will be able to transform their own video
clips into a range of artistic variants using both machine-coded algorithms
and their own creative input.
In this paper we proposed some applications of computer-based tools
supporting the sharing and archiving of visual information. First, we focussed
on new forms of interactive maps, outlining a visual language for the preparation
of historic maps and the dynamic presentation of historic developments.
Further potential applications of visual communication and information
systems presented include eLearning settings centered around digital pictorial
lexicons, electronic support in first-aid situations and for assembly or
repair, and platforms to assist people with special needs in their communication
activities, including illiterates and pre-literate children. Movies will
also benefit heavily from the availability of new visual technologies,
as users will be able to control the levels of abstraction of dynamic scenes.
Some of the proposals presented here will be pursued in specific projects
in the framework of MIRACLE.
[AA99] Andrienko, G.L., Andrienko, N.V.: Interactive
Maps for Visual Data Exploration. International Journal of Geographical
Information Science, vol. 13 (4), June 1999, pp.355-374.
[ACP98] Albacete P.L., Chang S.K., Polese G.: Iconic
Language Design for People with Significant Speech and Multiple Impairments.
In Mittel V.O. (ed.): Assistive Technology and AI, Springer LNAI 1458 (1998),
[BB96] Buzan, Tony; Buzan, Barry: The Mind Map Book;
Plume, reprint 1996.
[Bli84] Bliss, Charles K.: The Blissymbols Picture
Book. Semantography. Press: Sidney 1984. see also http://home.istar.ca/~bci.
[Bro02] Der Brockhaus multimedial (2003); see also
[BS01] Bär, Hans Rudolf; Sieber, René:
Towards High Standard Interactive Atlases - The "GIS and Multimedia
Cartography" Approach. International Cartographic Conference, Beijing
China, 2001; see also http://www.atlasofswitzerland.ch/pdf/ICC99_BaerSieber.pdf
[dtv91] dtv-Atlas zur Weltgeschichte, 2 volumes.
Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag; 25th edition 1991.
[DV01] DeVaul, Richard W.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Pentland,
Alex "Sandy": MIThril: context-aware computing for daily life;
The Media Laboratory, MIT; http://www.media.mit.edu/wearables/mithril/MIThril.pdf
[Fei02] Feiner, Steven K.: Augmented Reality A New
Way of Seeing; Scientific Amercian, April 2002, issue 4/24/02; see also
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